2008年3月12日星期三

Unattended Installations

Unattended Installations

Unattended & Silent Installations
This page is a freshly started work in progress.On this page I'll collect (links to) sample scripts and commands for unattended and silent software installations.My defeinition of an unattended installation is any installation that does not require user input but may display dialogs or progress bars etc. Silent installations are installations without any visible interface elements.
The main focus will on installing software, drivers, etcetera in Windows (NT 4 and later, not 9*/ME), not on installing Windows itself, though some links will be provided.
I won't restrict myself to a single script language, the goal is getting the job done.
The installation commands or scripts are roughly categorized:
General
Harddisks
Windows
Computer Accounts
User Accounts & Groups Permissions
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Registry
Printing
Devices and drivers DLLs, OCXs, etc.
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Encryption
.MSI Files
Specific Software
General
• A must-read if you are going to prepare unattended installations: Unattended/silent installation switches for Windows apps at sourceforge.net
• When you write scripts for unattended installations, try to assume as little as possible:
don't assume someone is logged in when using Sendkeys( ),
don't assume CapsLock will be off when using Sendkeys( ) to enter passwords,
don't assume a batch file's startup directory is its working directory (fails when started from UNC paths),
don't assume write access to the current directory, nor to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE,
never assume any Windows version,
don't assume the first partition or even the first harddisk is the one where Windows is installed,
don't assume Command Extensions are enabled,
don't assume DIR won't display hidden files,
don't...
Verify your assumptions, or make them true.
For example, a batch file's startup directory can be made the working directory by starting with the command PUSHD "%~dp0" (don't forget the POPD command at the end of the batch file). This is explained on my Clever Tricks page.
Use the full path to files and executables if possible, instead of assuming they will be located in the current directory.Use "%~dp0command_name.exe" if an executable is located in a batch file's own startup directory.
After issuing any command, check its return code or "ErrorLevel" to see if it succeeded or failed.
Check the current Windows version, and if necessary write different subroutines for each Windows version.
And last but not least, log the results of each action of your install scripts.
• Use my GetUnins.vbs script to find uninstall commands: CSCRIPT //NoLogo drive:\path\GetUnins.vbs /F:"filter_string"
/F:"filter_string" restricts the returned list to software that has a description which includes filter_string.Find the unistall string for the software you want to uninstall.
In case the software was installed from an .MSI file, the uninstall command will probably look like this (unique_identifier is a string that, as the name suggests, identifies specific software): MsiExec.exe /I{unique_identifier}
This is the command for an interactive uninstall or repair!Change it to an uninstall command by replacing MSIEXEC.EXE's /I switch by /X and append the /qn /norestart REBOOT=ReallySuppress switches to make it a silent uninstall without reboot: MSIEXEC.EXE /X{unique_identifier} /qn /norestart REBOOT=ReallySuppress
• If you're lucky, you'll find the command line switch(es) for unattended (un)installs in the documentation or by using the /? or -? switch.If not, you can sometimes find undocumented command line switches using STRINGS.But sometimes you may just need to guess what command line arguments will make an (un)install silent.If all else fails, experiment with the following switches:
/ni
/q
/qn
/quiet
/s
/silent
Try dashes instead of forward slashes too (-S instead of /S), and check both upper case and lower case.
Harddisks

Preparing harddisks for a new operating system is tricky, because it can be done only when you boot from another medium like a floppy disk, CD-ROM or bootable USB stick -- or another harddisk.
• Probably the most well-known tool to (re)partition harddisks is FDISK.FDISK is a native DOS command, so if you created a bootable DOS diskette you probably have a copy of FDISK.EXE or FDISK.COM available.From my own experience, however, I would advise against using FDISK on modern computers.FDISK has been known to miscalculate partition sizes and create overlapping partitions. In most cases you wouldn't notice this until a partition is almost completely filled with data, which will then be lost.
• If you still own a copy of an old Norton/Symantec Ghost version, you can use GDISK to (re)partion harddisks.Copy GDISK.EXE to your bootable medium (floppy disk, CD-ROM, USB stick).GDISK.EXE is for 16-bits DOS, if you boot with a 32-bits OS, like BartPE, use GDISK32.EXE instead.Boot from that medium and issue the command GDISK without any command line arguments to list all harrdisks with their numbers. This is especially important if you boot from a USB medium, as this may often be recognized as harddisk 1, and the internal harddisk as harddisk 2 (depending on the computer's BIOS and the type of USB medium). And we wouldn't want to accidentally repartition our bootable USB stick or external harddisk, now would we?
Let's suppose our USB stick is listed as harddisk 1, then we can repartition the "real" harddisk (2) with the following commands: GDISK 2 /DEL /ALL
GDISK 2 /MBR
GDISK 2 /CRE /PRI /SZ:4096 /FOR /Q /V:SYSTEM
GDISK 2 /CRE /EXT
GDISK 2 /CRE /LOG /FOR /Q /V:DATA
GDISK 2 /DEL /ALL will erase all existing partitions on harddisk 2.GDISK 2 /MBR will recreate a standard MBR on harddisk 2, important if the harddisk was somehow encrypted, like (IBM) laptops with their BIOS password set.GDISK 2 /CRE /PRI /SZ:4096 /FOR /Q /V:SYSTEM will create a new 4GB primary partition labeled "SYSTEM" and quick-format it.GDISK 2 /CRE /EXT will create an extended partion on the rest of the disk.GDISK 2 /CRE /LOG /FOR /Q /V:DATA will create a logical drive using the entire extended partition, label it "DATA" and quick-format it.
Read Symantec's detailed explanation of all GDISK command line switches.
Caution:
As always, test these commands thorougly on the type of computer you intend to use them for.Kids, don't try this at home!
Windows
Microsoft's Remote Installation Services (RIS)
Customizing Unattended Setup
Unattended Windows, the definitive how-to guide
Unattended, A Windows deployment system at sourceforge.net
Computer Accounts
Microsoft's NETDOM command line tool can be used to:
Join computers to an Active Directory or Windows NT 4.0 domain or workgroup
Manage computer accounts (add, remove and query, move to another domain, rename a computer)
Manage trust relationships between domains
User Accounts & Groups
As we are discussing software installations, we willl focus on local users and groups.However, since we'll be using the NET command, it won't be that hard to translate the commands to domain users and groups. NET USER new_account new_password
creates a new user account and sets its password.The following command will add the new command to the local Administrators group: NET LOCALGROUP Administrators new_account /ADD
To create a new domain administrator account, use the following commands: NET USER new_account new_password /DOMAIN
NET GROUP "Domain Admins" new_account /ADD /DOMAIN
This works for Active Directory too, the new account will be added to the "Users" container.In Active Directory, the DS Tools are the preferred tools to manage user accounts, groups, computer accounts and OUs.
Many command on my Useful Commands for Windows Administrators page can be useful for unattended installations too.Permissions
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Registry
For registry changes, REGEDIT is the tool to use.It may not be as simple to use as REG.EXE, but at least its command line usage has remained unchanged since Windows NT 4. If you plan on using REG.EXE, on the other hand, you'll need to check its version and modify the command line(s) accordingly.
The command you are likely to use most often is the import (or merge) command: START /WAIT REGEDIT.EXE /S regfile.REG
REGEDIT.EXE regfile.REG imports (or merges) regfile.REG into the registry./S makes this a silent import (by default the user is prompted for confirmation, and the import is confirmed afterwards).START /WAIT makes the batch file wait for REGEDIT to finish the import.
Printing
• Use RUNDLL32 PRINTUI.DLL,PrintUIEntry to install and configure printers.RUNDLL32.EXE and PRINTUI.DLL are both native in Windows 2000 and later (as a matter of fact, RUNDLL32.EXE has been around a lot longer, as you might guess after taking a look at my RUNDLL page).
With PRINTUI.DLL you can add, configure and delete printers and printer drivers, both local and remote.The command line switches can be supplied on the command line or read from a file.
• If you prefer VBScript (or actually WSH, including VBScript and JScript), PRNADMIN.DLL is the tool for you.PRNADMIN.DLL is part of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit, which can be downloaded for free.Though PRNADMIN.DLL was available in the Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit too, it is not available in the free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools for administrative tasks download.
Unlike PRINTUI.DLL, PRNADMIN.DLL can be used to create printer ports too!
• With Microsoft's PrintMig tool you can create backups of your complete set of printers, ports, drivers, print processors and print monitors.Unfortunately there is no way to selectively backup nor restore, so you may want to backup a clean test system with just the printers and components you need to migrate.
• An often overlooked way to add a network printer connection to a Windows computer is the following one-liner: START \\servername\printername
or, if the printer name contains spaces: START "Printer" "\\servername\printername"
Granted, this isn't a completely unattended installation, as it will still ask for confirmation from the user. But, hey, it's simple!
Devices and drivers
• Many hardware drivers come as .MSI files, in which case you can (un)install them like any other .MSI package.
• If a driver comes as a set of (uncompressed) files including a .INF file, use: RUNDLL32.EXE AdvPack.dll,LaunchINFSection filename.inf,,3
or: RUNDLL32.EXE SetupAPI.dll,InstallHinfSection DefaultInstall 128 filename.inf
The number 128 in the second RUNDLL32.EXE command means no reboot:
0
System provided INF
128
Set the default path of the installation to the location of the INF (typical setting)
+0
Never reboot the computer
+1
Reboot the computer in all cases
+2
Always ask the users if they want to reboot
+3
Reboot the computer if necessary without asking user for permission
+4
If a reboot of the computer is necessary, ask the user for permission before rebooting
If the path or file name of the .INF file contains spaces, use the short file name notation. Never use quoted long file names!
A sample using AdvPack.dll, to remove Windows Media Player (9): RUNDLL32.EXE AdvPack.dll,LaunchINFSection %windir%\INF\wmp.inf,Uninstall
• Another way to install drivers that come with .INF files is using DEVCON: DEVCON.EXE [-r] install filename.inf hwid
-r
reboot automatically if needed
filename.inf
.INF to use to install the device
hwid
hardware ID to apply to the device
• Another use for DEVCON is to remove existing devices, even when still physically connected, install new drivers and then rescan for "new" hardware to reinstall the devices with the new drivers: :: Remove all existing smartcard readers (modify
:: the FIND command to remove only specific devices)
FOR /F "tokens=1 delims=: " %%A IN ('DEVCON FindAll ˆ=SmartCardReader ˆ FIND ":"') DO (
DEVCON Remove "@%%~A"
)
:: Uninstall the old driver and install the new driver(s)



:: Scan for new hardware
DEVCON Rescan
DLLs, OCXs, etc.
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Encryption
To use encryption we will need keys and certificates.
CERTREQ and CERTUTIL from the Windows Server 2003 Support Tools can be used to query and manage (CA) certificates without user interaction.
In Windows 2000 and later, CRYPTEXT.DLL can be used with RUNDLL32.EXE:RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenCAT %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtAddCER %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenCER %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenSTR %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtAddCRL %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenCRL %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtAddP7R %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenP7R %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenPKCS7 %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtAddPFX %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtAddSPC %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenPKCS7 %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtAddCTL %1
RUNDLL32.EXE CRYPTEXT.DLL,CryptExtOpenCTL %1
Note:
This list was generated by running the following command in Windows XP SP2:

CSCRIPT.EXE //NoLogo GetRunDL.vbs FIND.EXE /I "cryptext.dll"
CryptExtAddCER will open the wizard to add a certificate with a .CER extension, CryptExtOpenCER will display a .CER certificate's properties dialog.
You can use KiXtart's or VBScript's SetFocus( ) and SendKeys( ) functions to "click" through the wizards' dialogs.If you use this method in automated installations, make sure a user is logged in and understands that he/she should not touch the mouse or keyboard until the installation is finished. Otherwise, if the wizard's dialog looses focus the installation will fail.
Microsoft's CAPICOM in conjunction with KiXtart, VBScript or (Object) Rexx can also be used to manage certificates.
.MSI Files
Use Windows Installer (executable name: MSIEXEC.EXE) to install .MSI files.
The general command syntax for unattended installations of .MSI files (with verbose logging, without reboot) is: MSIEXEC.EXE /I myfile.MSI /QN /L*V myfile.LOG /norestart REBOOT=ReallySuppress
The general uninstall command syntax (with verbose logging and without reboot) is: MSIEXEC.EXE /X myfile.MSI /QN /L*V myfile.LOG /norestart REBOOT=ReallySuppress
or: MSIEXEC.EXE /X {unique_identifier} /QN /L*V myfile.LOG /norestart REBOOT=ReallySuppress
The latter does not require the original .MSI file. The unique identifier can be found in the registry under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall, it is the name of the subkey.You may also want to take a look at the UninstallString values under each subkey.
My own GetUnins.vbs uses this technique.
More details and links are available on my MSIEXEC.EXE page.

2007年10月28日星期日

Problems Related to Project Specification

Problems Related to Project Specification ~~~

=> Don't know what the specification is talking about

=> Don't know the standard of the requirement

Plz reply here